How Dhāraṇīs Were Proto-tantric: Ritual Uses of Buddhist Spells in Dunhuang and Beyond

The 2010 Spring Numata Lecture was delivered by Jacob Dalton on April 30, 2010. The following episode is the audio-only version of Prof. Dalton’s talk. The Tibetan manuscripts from Dunhuang include a large number of copied dhāraṇīs, both sÅ«tras and